Hybridchips geben Robotern Schwarmdenken

Hybridchips geben Robotern Schwarmdenken

07.03.2019: Innovation des Georgia Institute of Technology ermöglicht extrem geringen Stromverbrauch Computer mit Schwarmintelligenz im Test (Foto: Allison Carter, gatech.edu)

Innovation des Georgia Institute of Technology ermöglicht extrem geringen Stromverbrauch
 


Computer mit Schwarmintelligenz im Test (Foto: Allison Carter, gatech.edu)



Ein Chip, der extrem wenig Strom verbraucht und der Funktionsweise des menschlichen Gehirns ähnelt, verleiht kleinen Robotern die Fähigkeit, im Team zu arbeiten und von den Erfahrungen anderer zu lernen.



Laut Arijit Raychowdhury vom Georgia Institute of Technology http://gatech.edu und seinem Team können Roboter, die mit diesem Chip sowie stromsparenden Sensoren, Motoren und anderen Geräten ausgestattet sind, stundenlang zusammenarbeiten statt wie bisher nur einige Minuten lang.




Halb digital, halb analog


Bei dem Chip handelt sich um einen Hybrid, der die besten Eigenschaften aus der digitalen und der analogen Welt in sich vereint. "Wir wollen kleine Roboter mit Intelligenz ausstatten, sodass sie etwas über ihre Umwelt lernen und sich völlig autonom bewegen, also ohne eine äußere Infrastruktur", sagt Raychowdhury.



"Um das zu erreichen, statten wird kleine Roboter mit wenig Strom verbrauchenden Systemen aus, sodass sie eigenständig Entscheidungen treffen können", so der Forscher. Es gebe einen hohen Bedarf an derartigen Systemen. Die Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency http://www.darpa.mil , die Forschungseinrichtung der US-Armee, sieht das auch so. Sie sponsort das Forschungsvorhaben.



Die Forscher haben kleine fahrbare Roboter mit ihrem System ausgestattet. Sie zu testen war Aufgabe der Studenten Ningyuan Cao, Muya Chang and Anupam Golder.



Versuchsfeld war ein eingezäuntes Feld, dessen Boden mit einer genoppten Gummimatte ausgelegt war, wie aneinandergereihte Legosteine, allerdings aus einem anderen Material. Um bestimmte Ziele zu erreichen, mussten sie Kollisionen mit weitgehend roten Pylonen und mit dem zweiten Fahrzeug vermeiden. Zudem mussten sie sich einprägen, was sich im Testfeld befand und das jeweils dem zweiten Fahrzeug mitteilen - sie mussten wie ein Schwarm handeln.



"Es ist uns zudem gelungen, den Stromverbrauch in den Milliwatt-Bereich zu verschieben", erzählt Raychowdhury. Mit ein paar AA-Batterien könnten sie stundenlang agieren.



Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_NqdJabFJKo

 


 Wolfgang Kempkens, photo Allison Carter, gatech.edu


Permanent-URL: http://www.automobilsport.com/hybridchips-roboter-schwarmdenken---187406.html

07.03.2019 / MaP

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