Toyota Corolla expanded hybrid line-up

Toyota Corolla expanded hybrid line-up

14.02.2019: First Toyota model to offer a choice of two self-charging hybrid powertrains - 122 DIN hp, 1.8 litre or new 180 DIN hp, 2.0 litre- on Hatchback and Touring Sports

    First Toyota model to offer a choice of two self-charging hybrid powertrains

- 122 DIN hp, 1.8 litre or new 180 DIN hp, 2.0 litre- on Hatchback and Touring Sports

    1.8 litre self-charging hybrid available for the first time on the legendary Corolla Sedan

    Hatchback and Touring Sports available with 116 DIN hp 1.2 litre turbo petrol engine

    Sedan available with improved 132 DIN hp, 1.6 litre petrol engine

Society’s increasing demand for environmental solutions has led to ever more strict regulations, particularly in large European cities. Combining the lowest possible emissions with the capability of driving for up to 50% of a daily commute under all-electric power alone1, Toyota’s self-charging hybrid powertrains represent a compelling proposition.

Toyota has always prided itself on listening to its customers and responding to the feedback they provide. After 20 years of hybrid leadership and more than 12 million global sales, including more than two million units in Europe, the company has also focused on the input of potential customers who want more power whilst driving a hybrid.

For this reason, Toyota is offering the new Corolla Hatchback and Touring Sports models with a choice of two hybrid powertrains; one offering all the fourth generation hybrid system’s strengths, including improved response and linearity, and the traditional benefits of fuel efficiency and a relaxing drive, the second building on these strengths with greater power on demand, effortless acceleration and more dynamic, ‘fun to drive’ characteristics.

In addition to the self-charging hybrid powertrains, both Hatchback and Touring Sports versions will offer customers one conventional engine -a 1.2 litre turbo petrol unit.

The new Sedan will be available with a choice of the 122 DIN hp, 1.8 litre hybrid powertrain or an improved 132 DIN hp, 1.6 litre petrol engine which combines responsiveness with efficiency.

Improved 1.8 Litre Hybrid Powertrain

The fourth generation 1.8 litre self-charging hybrid system develops 122 DIN hp/90 kW and 142 Nm of engine torque, with the added power of a 53 kW/600V electric motor which develops maximum torque of 163 Nm from zero rpm.

It fulfils all the requirements that customers have come to expect from a Toyota self-charging hybrid powertrain -quiet, intuitive, responsive and self-sufficient EV technology with no need for plug-in recharging. It offers low cost of ownership, outstanding fuel economy and low CO2emissions, and up to 50% all-electric driving on the everyday commute[1].

Its size and weight reduced to fit within the new GA-C platform without detriment to output or quietness, the four-cylinder, 1,797 cm3, DOHC, Atkinson Cycle engine benefits from numerous measures designed to improve fuel efficiency, enhance acceleration performance and reduce cabin noise.

Fuel efficiency has been improved through the reduction of friction, high tumble flow and optimum heat management. Friction reduction measures include a new piston skirt shape and its sliding part’s resin coating, the adoption of a spacer inside the cylinder block water jacket to suppress cylinder bore deformation, the use of low-friction valve train and chain drive components, and the optimisation of the crank and connection rod bearings.

High tumble flow has been achieved through the shape of the intake port and the piston, enhancing EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and improving combustion. A diagonal squish combustion chamber aligned with the spark plug angle improved anti-knock performance and fuel efficiency. The EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system valve has been enlarged to optimise gas flow, the intake manifold gas distribution structure has been optimised and EGR cooler heat exchange efficiency has been increased.

Heat management has been optimised by the adoption of a low flow type electric water pump, a division of the cooling path into two -one for the engine and the other for the heater, the installation of a Flow Shutting Valve (FSV) between the water outlet and EGR cooler to reduce coolant flow during engine warm up, the use of thin, long reach spark plugs, the shape of the combustion chamber water jacket and the promotion of high tumble flow.

Acceleration performance has been enhanced through the adoption of dual needle type spark plugs to improve ignition, and the adoption of a rectangular type ignition coil with high coil shape flexibility to reduce size and accommodate increased hybrid engine output.

Cabin noise has been reduced through the optimisation of the engine main body to achieve low vibration and noise, an amended engine mount position and shape, the adoption of a resin cylinder head cover which combines substantial weight reduction with superior NV (Noise and Vibration) performance, and a change in the shape of the exhaust system muffler.

The hybrid system features a smaller, lighter transaxle in which a new, dual axis structure adopted for the motor and generator achieves a low loss gear train with a smaller overall width. This parallel axis structure both increases the motor’s rotation speed and reduces its size.

The gear ratio has been optimised to promote maximum fuel efficiency and dynamic performance. Allied to gear tooth surface polishing, the new gear structure further suppresses resonance and operation noise, making the hybrid drive system quieter in operation than ever before.

The calibration of the hybrid drive system has been further refined. Greater torque from the electric motor provides a more linear rpm increase under acceleration. And the adoption of a new hybrid battery pack (Li-ion on Hatchback and Touring Sports, Ni-mH on Sedan) promotes even greater fuel economy.

Equipped with the 1.8 litre hybrid powertrain, performance figures for the Hatchback, Touring Sports and Sedan are 0 to 100 km/h in 10.9, 11.1 and 11.0 seconds respectively. All three variants have a maximum speed of 180 km/h.

Fuel consumption for both the Hatchback and Touring Sports is as low as 3.3 l/100 km2[2]and CO2emissions are just 76 g/km (WLTP: 101 g/km), whilst the Sedan’s fuel consumption is as low as 3.4 l/100 km2and its CO2emissions are only 77 g/km (WLTP: 100 g/km).

1 Depending on driving conditions

New 2.0 Litre Hybrid Powertrain

The new 2.0 litre hybrid system develops 180 DIN hp/132 kW and 190 Nm of engine torque, also with the added power of a nickel-metal hydride-powered, 80 kW/650V electric motor which develops maximum torque of 202 Nm from zero rpm.

Taking full advantage of the added stability, handling and agility inherent in the newly adopted GA-C platform, it offers drivers an ‘energised drive’, with more power, a Sport driving mode and a 6-speed Sequential Shiftmatic transmission with steering wheel-mounted paddles for a more dynamic, engaging driving experience.

Moreover, the new 2.0 litre hybrid system is a unique proposition in this segment; no conventional powertrain can offer the same combination of performance and low emissions. And numerous measures have been taken to ensure that extra power is matched by enhanced fuel efficiency, lower emissions and quiet running.

Its outer wall thickness reduced to 2.3 mm, the aluminium die-cast engine block has been designed for minimum weight and a lowered centre of gravity, significantly enhancing the Corolla’s dynamic performance and engaging driving characteristics. Other weight reducing measures include a thinner cylinder head, a lightweight timing chain case, and a lighter valve train.

The high speed combustion achieved through the high tumble flow of a highly efficient intake port and long stroke, a new oil pump design and numerous friction-reducing measures shared with the 1.8 litre hybrid unit combine with a high compression ratio of 14:1 to enhance fuel efficiency.

Further improving fuel efficiency, the four-cylinder, 1,987 cm³ engine features an uprated Dual VVT-i system with VVT-iE (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent Electric) on the intake side, in which valve timing is controlled by an electric motor rather than oil pressure, enhancing output and fuel efficiency whilst lowering emissions.

Also lowering emissions, the exhaust system catalytic converter has been placed closer to the engine, and warm-up control after engine start optimised to achieve early, enhanced exhaust purification.

Furthermore, a balance shaft, amended engine mount position and shape, structural changes to the transaxle, gear tooth polishing, the adoption of a positive/negative hysteresis damper, a lightweight timing chain and revisions to the water pump motor all combine to reduce powertrain noise to exceptionally low levels.

As with the 1.8 litre system, the new hybrid powertrain also features a reduction in size of the transaxle, power control unit, motor and nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery.

In addition, the EV drive vehicle maximum cruising speed has been increased to above 115 km/h, and system control has been changed to prohibit engine start without accelerator pedal operation even before engine warm up starts. In combination, these measures substantially enhance fuel efficiency.

The 2.0 litre hybrid powertrain gives the Hatchback and Touring Sports 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 7.9 and 8.1 seconds respectively, and an identical maximum speed of 180 km/h.

Fuel consumption for both models is as low as 3.7 l/100 km2. The Hatchback generates CO2emissions of just 85 g/km (WLTP: 106 g/km), and the Touring Sports only 84 g/km (WLTP: 106 g/km).

2 Based on Regulation EC 2017/1153 as amended EC 2017/1231

1.2 Litre Turbo Petrol Engine

The sole petrol engine option in the Hatchback and Touring Sports range, the four-cylinder, 16 valve, DOHC, Dual VVT-iW, 1,197 cm³ turbo petrol engine develops a maximum power output of 114 DIN hp/85 kW and maximum torque of 185 Nm.

The unit benefits from a single scroll turbocharger with water-cooled intercooler and a Dual VVT-iW (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent Wide) system. VVT-iW features standard VVT-i on the exhaust valves and VVT-iW on the intake side. The latter features a mid-position camshaft lock mechanism which retards the continuously variable valve timing.

Enhancing smooth acceleration during low speed driving, the maximum engine speed has been raised from 5,600 rpm to 6,200 rpm.

Numerous friction reduction measures have been introduced to improve fuel efficiency. They include a DLC (Diamond Like Coating) applied to the outer circumference of the compression and oil rings to reduce piston sliding friction, a newly developed resin coating to the piston skirt and crankshaft main support, and the optimised thickness and material of the V ribbed belt to reduce flexural resistance and thus friction.

The 1.2T powertrain is available with a CVT gearbox or a 6-speed ‘Intelligent Manual Transmission (iMT)’.

Just like a master of the heel-and-toe technique, the iMT automatically increases engine revs when downshifting, ensuring a smooth gear shift, and improving clutch and transmission wear. The system also works when shifting up in order to improve comfort for driver and passengers by reducing clutch shock. A smooth start is also ensured and the risk of stalling is almost nil.

When equipped with the iMT, the Hatchback and Touring Sports will accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 9.3 and 9.6 seconds respectively. Both achieve a top speed of 200 km/h. Fuel consumption for both variants is as low as 5.2 l/100 km2and CO2emissions are only 119 g/km (WLTP: 132 g/km).

When mated to the CVT gearbox, Hatchback and Touring Sports 0 to 100 km/h acceleration is 10.0 and 10.3 seconds, with both achieve a top speed of 195 km/h. Fuel consumption is as low as 5.2 l/100 km2and CO2emissions are only 116 g/km (WLTP: 138 g/km) for both body types.

2 Based on Regulation EC 2017/1153 as amended EC 2017/1231

Improved 1.6 Litre Petrol Engine

Exclusive to the new Sedan, the improved 1.6 litre Valvematic engine develops 97 kW/132 DIN hp and a maximum torque of 159 Nm at only 4,400 rpm.

Valvematic is a further development of Toyota’s highly successful Dual Variable Valve Timing-intelligent (Dual VVT-i) system. It takes VVT-i technology a step forward by adding lift and duration control to the inlet valve variable timing. This improves intake airflow volume and speed management -and, subsequently, combustion process management- to deliver 7% more power for 8% less fuel consumption, with reduced CO2emissions. The adoption of Valvematic further reduces friction and pumping losses under light engine loads, further lowering fuel consumption.

Valvematic efficiency is further improved through the adoption of a variable length inlet manifold. This acts as an accelerator at low to medium engine speeds, maximising inlet air speed for optimum combustion efficiency. At higher engine speeds the manifold is fully open. This allows air to travel via a shorter route, maximising the volume of air entering the combustion chamber and, hence, engine power output.

When equipped with the 6-speed manual transmission, the Sedan accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in 9.7 seconds and on to a top speed of 200 km/h. Fuel consumption is as low as 5.7 l/100 km2and CO2emissions are only 130 g/km (WLTP: 139 g/km).

The Multidrive S gearbox gives the Sedan a 0 to 100 km/h acceleration time of 10.2 seconds and a maximum speed of 190 km/h, with average fuel consumption as low as 5.5 l/100 km2and CO2emissions of just 125 g/km (WLTP: 146 g/km).

2 Based on Regulation EC 2017/1153 as amended EC 2017/1231


How do the 1.8 litre and 2.0 litre hybrid systems differ from each other; is it only the displacement of the combustion engine?

The 1.8 litre system was developed for customers who value fuel economy. And the 2.0 litre powertrain has been developed for customers who want more power and a more dynamic drive.

But the difference between the two units is not limited to the displacement of the combustion engine; the latter is a completely new self-charging hybrid system that can offer both excellent fuel efficiency and enthusiastic driving.

Is the 1.8 litre hybrid powertrain identical to that of Prius and C-HR, or have there been any changes made in the mean time?

The 1.8 litre HV system is basically the same as that of Prius or C-HR but we made some small tuning changes to further refine the powertrain and enhance the driving experience.

What was your main challenge during the development of the new 2.0 litre hybrid system?

For the new 2.0 litre hybrid powertrain, we further developed not only the rate of acceleration but also the sense of acceleration. By suppressing the initial engine rpm by using more battery and electric motor power, we were able to realise a more linear feeling of engine and vehicle speeds matching during acceleration.

Is there a difference between the two hybrid powertrains when it comes to regenerating energy/charging the battery?

Since the 2.0 litre hybrid system has more battery cells compared to the 1.8 litre variant, it can develop both a greater output and offer more regenerative energy.

How is the gearbox of the 2.0 litre system different to that of the 1.8 litre system? Why does the former feature steering wheel-mounted shift paddles?

To be exact, the HV system does not have a gearbox; it features a transaxle.

The difference between the 1.8 litre and 2.0 litre transaxles is in the size of the motor and gear.

On the 2.0 litre Hybrid powertrain we offer shift paddles as it gives the driver more control and thus allows for a more enthusiastic driving experience.

“The 1.8 litre hybrid system was developed for customers who value fuel economy. And the 2.0 litre powertrain has been developed for customers who want more power and a more dynamic drive.”


Vincent Dewaersegger, photo Toyota


14.02.2019 / MaP

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