BMW Group Innovation Days 2010 - CFRP Ė a material for the future

02.07.2010: The aerospace industry and the world of motorsport already rely heavily on carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP). This material has many advantages, which automotive engineers are increasingly exploiting wherever components need to combine high stress re

The aerospace industry and the world of motorsport already rely heavily on carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP).


This material has many advantages, which automotive engineers are increasingly exploiting wherever components need to combine high stress resistance with light weight, high stiffness and high strength. The experts at the Landshut Innovation and Technology Centre (LITZ) have been intensively investigating this high-tech material for over ten years.

This long-running development work, and a successful transition into volume production, means the BMW Group now has know-how which is unrivalled in the motoring industry about processes, tools and manufacturing techniques. It has also achieved high levels of mass production. But what is so special about this material?


Incredibly light and as strong as steel.


Carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is a composite material consisting of carbon fibres surrounded by a plastic matrix (resin). Very few other materials can compare with CFRP, which exhibits a unique combination of positive properties. First and foremost, CFRP is extremely rigid and strong – yet at the same time extremely lightweight.

For equivalent or even better functionality, CFRP is approximately 50% lighter than steel and 30% lighter than aluminium. It is also resistant to corrosion, acid and organic solvents, giving it a much longer useful life than metal. In addition, CFRP remains stable under all climatic conditions, showing very little change in shape even when exposed to large temperature fluctuations.


Light weight involves no compromises on safety.


The high rigidity of this material is also accompanied by excellent damping qualities and high impact strength. CFRP has remarkably good energy-absorbing capabilities, making it very damage-tolerant. As a result, body components made of CFRP are not only very light, they also demonstrate outstanding crash performance. In fact, CFRP is the lightest material that can be used in vehicle body manufacturing without concessions on safety.

That said, CFRP’s stress tolerance is not unlimited. When its load capabilities are exceeded, the fibre composite structure breaks down, in a controlled manner, into its individual components.


“The forces (or accelerations) needed to destroy CFRP are far higher than might be assumed.” (Bernhard Dressler)


The right strength in the right places.


The secret of this high-strength material lies in the carbon fibres. In contrast to quasi-isotropic metals like aluminium or steel, which have equal strength in all directions, CFRP is anisotropic. This gives it very high strength, like a rod, in one direction, namely along the tensile/compression axis. This is its key advantage.

Since an individual component is never simultaneously exposed at all points to loads in all directions, this special quality means that the stress resistance of components can be optimally matched to the loads they will actually encounter in practice.

As in nature, where bones or plants use thicker structures only where really necessary, so the BMW Group engineers likewise tailor the thickness and fibre alignment of CFRP components to meet actual requirements, varying the quantity of fibres used and aligning them in the direction or directions along which loads will be exerted in the future product.

These precisely gauged component parameters also help to minimise weight.

“CFRP allows material to be used efficiently, combining optimal strength and functionality with minimal weight.” (Bernhard Dressler)


Using CFRP is more than simply a straight substitution, like using aluminium in place of steel. With its special properties, this high-tech material also opens the door to completely new approaches and design concepts.

Electric mobility is a case in point, where CFRP offers great potential as a material for vehicle body components since its lightweight properties result in a higher power-to-weight ratio, and therefore an extended driving range.

 Provided that this material is properly understood, it can be strategically deployed to achieve vast improvements in a wide range of lightweight products.

“Lightweight design requires a proper understanding of the properties of CFRP.” (Jochen Töpker)


Technological expertise in the BMW Group.


There are a number of reasons why, in the past, use of CFRP was confined to small-batch or prototype production. For the most part, components using this still relatively new material were built by means of a manual, highly time-consuming production process. This resulted in high costs and lengthy cycle times, which posed a major obstacle to mass production.

Then, in 2003, the BMW Group took the plunge and began volume production of CFRP components. It has been ramping up output ever since. Today the Landshut plant is even mass-producing roofs (for the BMW M3 and M6 models) and bumper supports (for the M6) in CFRP.

Thanks to intensive material and process engineering efforts over the past ten years, the BMW Group has built up a high level of expertise in CFRP-specific production processes, efficient tooling solutions and optimised cycle times.

The BMW Group’s CFRP specialists have steadily refined and automated the CFRP production process at the Landshut plant so that, for the first time, it is now possible to mass-produce CFRP body components cost-efficiently and to a high quality standard.

The process engineers at the Landshut Innovation and Technology Centre (LITZ) have thereby removed one of the main hurdles to increased use of carbon fibre components in vehicle body manufacture. With these pioneering advances, the BMW Group is helping to ensure that CFRP’s potential is even better utilised in the future.



State-of-the-art production in the BMW Group.

The still widespread production technique whereby prepregs – fibres pre-impregnated with resin – are processed and then cured in an autoclave (a kind of giant oven) is not compatible with mass production of automobiles. As early as 2003, the BMW Group therefore introduced a next-generation production system geared to high-quality volume production of CFRP parts.

This state-of-the-art process has very short cycle times. What’s more, it is not tied exclusively to the Landshut plant but could theoretically be used at any BMW plant in the world, subject to certain basic requirements. So how exactly does this BMW production process for CFRP components work?


From fibre to fabric.


The starting point for CFRP production is the so-called precursor. This thermoplastic polyacrylonitrile fibre is the raw material for carbon fibre manufacture. In a complex multi-stage process, conducted under varying temperature and pressure conditions, the various constituent elements of the fibre are removed one by one, by gasification, eventually leaving a fibre that consists of virtually pure carbon, with a stable graphite structure. The resulting carbon fibres are just seven microns (0.007 millimetres) thick.

A human hair, by comparison, has a diameter of 50 microns. For automotive application, approximately 50,000 of these individual filaments are bundled into so-called rovings or heavy tows and wound, prior to further processing. In addition to automotive applications, fibre bundles of this thickness are also used, for example, in large rotor blades for wind turbines.

In the next stage in the process, the fibre bundles are processed into non-woven fabrics. In contrast to a woven fabric, in these fabrics the fibres are not placed at right angles to one another and interwoven, but are all aligned in the same plane. Weaving would kink the fibres and detract from their special properties. The alignment of the fibres in the fabric is crucial to achieving optimal quality in a CFRP component.



Preforming and preform joining – a component takes shape

At the so-called “preforming” stage, the cut but still flat fabric begins to acquire a shape. During this process a heat source is used to give a fabric stack a stable, three-dimensional contour. The final shape of the component is already clearly visible. Several of these preformed stacks can then be joined to form a larger component. In this way CFRP can be used, for example, to produce highly integrated components with a large surface area, which would be extremely cumbersome to manufacture from aluminium or sheet steel.

This has major benefits for vehicle body design and manufacture. For example, mounting parts or other features can be integrated directly into the component. Also, complex structural components and entire body modules with varying wall thicknesses can be produced in a single moulding tool.

At both process stages – preforming and preform joining – the big challenge lies in ensuring good production processability of the flexible fabric so that the preforms will maintain a stable shape and can be joined with maximum precision. Here, too, the BMW Group has acquired valuable expertise over the years.


High-pressure resin injection with Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM).

The joined preforms are now ready for the next stage in the process: resin injection. This second major component in the composite structure – the resin – ensures that the preformed stacks permanently maintain their preconfigured shape. The resin transfer moulding (RTM) process involves high-pressure injection of resin into the preforms. Firm bonding between the fibres and resin, and the subsequent hardening process, give the material the rigidity which is key to its outstanding qualities.

The impregnation of the fibres by the resin is a highly complex process full of conflicting requirements. For example, on the one hand the resin must reach every area of the material with minimal delay, impregnating every fibre right down to microscopic level. This means the resin must have as low a viscosity as possible, so that it can flow freely enough to be dispersed quickly throughout the fabric. On the other hand, as soon as it has impregnated all the material, the resin needs to harden as quickly as possible.

Thirdly, a release agent is required that will allow the resinated components to be parted from the moulding tools without the components being damaged – yet without affecting the bonding between the fibre and the resin. Resolving all these conflicting requirements simultaneously is a highly complex task.

The BMW Group has developed its own process, moulding tools and production equipment to resolve these conflicts and to ensure high productivity combined with very high quality.

During resin impregnation of the fibres, some ten different substances and materials must be bonded together, but under no circumstances must they react with one another. It is also important to ensure full bonding throughout the composite structure – between the carbon fibre fabric, the resin, the hardening agent, the binder, the yarn, the release agent and other materials – both at macroscopic and at microscopic level.

This is a major challenge when working with fibre composites, because the material is always only as good as the bond between resin and fibre.



Final processing – a water jet cutter applies the finishing touches.


After resin injection and hardening, the production process is almost complete. All that remains is the finishing work such as precise contour cutting and the insertion of any further openings that may still be required. At BMW Group plants this finishing work is performed by a water jet cutting machine.

Since the finished CFRP component is already, following resination, very stiff and robust, ordinary milling heads would quickly run into wear and tear problems and would require frequent replacement. Water jet cutting and drilling on the other hand are wear-free. For CFRP applications, this technique does require certain modifications – which the BMW Group has already introduced.

“Our matured production processes enable us to produce components precisely in line with the engineers’ specifications and in accordance with the product’s function.” (Andreas Reinhardt)




Recycling – offcuts make a comeback as new structural components.

The BMW Group’s CFRP strategy extends throughout and beyond the life cycle of the product. Over the course of time, a variety of concepts have been developed and evaluated for recycling this high-grade material, but it was not until recently that a solution was found for optimal recycling of production waste. Now the BMW Group has developed a concept for recycling segregated production waste into commercial-quality raw material.

This system, the first of its kind in the world, allows a substantial proportion of carbon fibre waste to be returned to the production process. Thanks to a special refining procedure, the resulting material can even be used as a substitute for primary fabric. After all, the benefits of recycling are twofold: cutting waste reduces not only environmental impacts but consumption of new material as well.

“Our aim was to reuse offcuts from the production processes in high-grade applications for our own products.” (Andreas Reinhardt)

Of course, BMW’s CFRP strategy is ecologically sustainable not just with regard to recycling but also in terms of production. For example, the Group is committed to ensuring that the new plant in Moses Lake, USA, operated by the joint venture with SGL ACF (Automotive Carbon Fibers), obtains its energy exclusively from renewable sources. The plant will also set standards for energy efficiency.



Cradle-to-grave approach for optimal results.


The developers and CFRP experts have continuously improved all processes, materials, production equipment and tools over the past ten years, thereby ensuring a successful ramp-up to mass production. Throughout, the improvements were focused on the complete process and value chain.

The BMW Group is currently in a unique position in that it is able to influence all processes in this chain, from fibre production to recycling. That means it can ensure that progress at particular points in the chain quickly feeds through to the system as a whole.


Mass production was always the aim.



With the steady ramping up of output, and the development of innovative processes, the BMW Group has now accumulated a vast amount of in-house expertise and experience. This know-how is spread across its workforce, its production equipment and its processes.

It was only possible to achieve such a high level of expertise thanks to the unwavering focus on one overriding goal: mass production of CFRP components. That’s because the BMW Group sees CFRP not simply as a niche application for specific vehicles, but as a pioneering technology for automotive design in general. That is why, from the outset, the company has invested heavily in acquiring and continuously developing in-house competences – whether process capabilities or employee skills.

This high level of self-sufficiency and in-house expertise throughout the production process has also served to make the BMW Group largely independent of and free from external constraints. The result is a production process whose maturity is reflected above all in high component quality.


“The key to successful mass production of CFRP components is a focus on creating quality in-process rather than through end-of-process checking.” (Jochen Töpker)




- Tobias Hahn -

Permanent-URL: http://www.automobilsport.com/bmw-group-innovation-days-2010-cfrp-material-for-the-future-carbon-fibre-reinforced-plastic---82841.html

02.07.2010 / MaP

More News

BMW Group Innovation Days 2010 - Lightweight design and the LifeDrive concept
02.07.2010
New body concepts to meet the challenges of a new mobility.Powering a vehicle electrically means more than just replacing the combustion engine with an electric drive system. The electrification of a vehicle involves far-reaching revisions to the entire body, as the electric drive system components place very different demands on the packaging space in a vehic more >>
BMW Group Innovation Days 2010 - The electric drivetrain
02.07.2010
Up to now, driving a car has always meant having a combustion engine for company. However, changes in the environment and within society have shown that using fossil fuels across all areas of daily life comes at an ecological cost. And, of course, the fuels themselves will not be available indefinitely. The BMW Group views vigorously driving forward the technical development of elec more >>
BMW Group Innovation Days 2010 - project i
02.07.2010
Based on its review of current social and environmental trends (ch. 1), in mid-2007 the BMW Group presented a new strategic roadmap for the company – the “Number One” strategy. This strategy makes a firm commitment to profitability, sustainable value creation and safeguarding the company’s independence. As well as growing the c more >>
BMW Group Innovation Days 2010 - Why electromobility?
02.07.2010
Climate change and global warming.Climate change and the global warming that comes with it are facts. The decade from 2000 to 2009 was certainly the warmest ever recorded, yet the worldwide efforts to counteract this are greater than ever too. A further rise in the average temperature would bring with it a multitude of far-reaching consequences, including the faster more >>
BMW picks up three honours at the Environmental Transport Associationís Green Car Awards 2010
23.06.2010
BMW has won three accolades at the Environmental Transport Association’s Green Car Awards 2010.  This year the Environmental Transport Association examined over 5,000 vehicles to establish the greenest cars on the market for the Green Car Awards 2010.  With class wins in the large family, off-road and luxury car categories, BMW’s EfficientDynamics programme was praised for more >>
McLaren Production Centre construction & environmental programme ahead of schedule
05.05.2010
•              £40 million McLaren Production Centre (MPC) construction programme ahead of schedule within two months•              Innovation and attention to detail in MPC construction programme reflect wider McLaren Group attitu more >>
Mercedes-Benz buses meet EEV emissions standard without diesel particulate filter
16.04.2010
    *      Environmentally-friendly Mercedes-Benz bus range    *      Benefits for transport operators and private companies more >>
Lithium Energy Japan Commits to Construction of New Plant
15.04.2010
- New Ritto Plant (Japan) to Begin Full Mass Production of Lithium-ion Batteries for 50,000 Electric Vehicles Per Year in 2012 - Lithium Energy Japan (LEJ) has decided to build a new Plant in Ritto City, Shig more >>
BMW cleans up with EfficientDynamics at the 2010 Fleet News Awards
22.03.2010
Renowned industry publication, Fleet News, has honoured BMW again for its widespread introduction of EfficientDynamics technologies, in their annual Fleet News Awards.  BMW’s EfficientDynamics programme reduces emissions and improves fuel consumption, while maintaining or increasing performance and driving enjoyment. Fleet News also gave the Best Luxury Car award to the B more >>
Mitsubishi Motors' i-MiEV awarded with the "Environment Special Grand Prize"
08.02.2010
at the 25th International Automobile Festival in ParisMitsubishi Motors Corporation has announced that its new -generation electric vehicle i-MiEV has been awarded with the “Environment Special Grand Prize” during the 25th International Automobile Festivalheld in Paris, France on February 4, 2010. The i-MiEV was selected amongst more >>
smart is the past and the present CO2 champion
06.02.2010
Record low emissions of 86 grams of CO2 per kilometre   The smart fortwo cdi is maintaining its top position among the most environmentally friendly cars with a combustion engine. The smart fortwo cdi now emits just 86 g/km of CO2 – less th more >>
BusinessCar honours BMW Group
26.01.2010
BMW has scooped seven awards from one of the country’s leading fleet publications. BusinessCar magazine has bestowed BMW with the headline honours of ‘Manufacturer of the Year’ and ‘Environmental Award of the Year’ in addition to five further product specific awards.While the BMW Group was crowned king in two main awards, MINI was award more >>
BMW Group scoops Greenest Manufacturer of the Year award
22.01.2010
The BMW Group has been named Greenest Manufacturer of the Year 2009 by one of the UK’s leading eco-motoring websites. The highly respected Green-Car-Guide.com recognises the manufacturer who has made the biggest impact in bringing lower emission cars to British car buyers each year. For 2009 BMW Group was awarded the coveted title for the second time in three years. The j more >>
Mini-Heizkraftwerk für Zuhause Toyota startet Test mit Feststoff-Brennstoffzellen-Anlagen
14.01.2010
In einem breit angelegten Feldversuch wird jetzt Toyota die Praxistauglichkeit von stationären Heizkraftwerken mit Feststoff-Brennstoffzellen-Technik (Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell = SOFC) für den Heimgebrauch testen. Ein Mini-Kraftwerk, das gemeinsam mit Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., der Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. und dem Elektronikkonzern Kyocera Corporation entwickelt wurde. more >>
Clean Fuel for Automotive Vehicles Thanks to Paper Waste
12.01.2010
Danish company Haldor Topsøe, supplier of catalytic processes and technologies, reveals a technology which can transform black liquor (a waste product from paper production) into DME (DiMethyl Ether), a clean fuel but can also be used for cars. Volvo, one of the project partners, has tested DME and named it 'the preferred fuel' among the green fuels available. The project tak more >>
Mitsubishi Motors' i-MiEV voted "Ecobest 2009" by the AUTOBEST jury
12.01.2010
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) announced that ahead its forthcoming European launch during FY2010, Mitsubishi Motors' i-MiEV electric car has been voted "Ecobest 2009" by the AUTOBEST Jury: a further acknowledgment of its "real l more >>
Vattenfall Boosts its Position in Offshore Wind in England
08.01.2010
 Vattenfall and ScottishPower Renewables have been awarded the rights to develop an offshore wind farm off the east coast of England in the North Sea. Early investigations suggest that the East Anglia Array has the potential to achieve a capacity of approximately 7.200MW. Fully utilized, it has a potential to meet the equivalent electricity needs of more >>
UK Awards Offshore Wind Farm Contract for Largest Zone to International Consortium Forewind
08.01.2010
The Forewind consortium, comprising Statoil, Statkraft, SSE (Scottish and Southern Energy) and RWE npower has been named as the successful bidder for the largest zone in the third licence round (Round 3) for UK offshore wind farms, Dogger Bank, The Crown Estate announced. The Dogger Bank zone is located off the east coast of Yorkshire between 125 and 195 kilometres offshore, and it more >>
GM First Major Automaker to Manufacture an Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Pack in U.S.
08.01.2010
The first advanced lithium-ion battery for a mass-marketed electric vehicle by a major automaker will roll off the assembly line at GM's Brownstown Township Battery Pack Assembly Plant today. Last August, GM announced a $43 million dollar investment to prepare the 160,000-square-foot landfill-free facility for production of lithium-ion battery packs for the Volt and other electric v more >>
Analysis by the environmental institute Öko-Trend: Three awards for Mercedes-Benz
19.12.2009
The Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID, the B 180 NGT and the smart mhd (micro hybrid drive) are the most environmentally friendly automobiles in their class. These are the findings from extensive analyses conducted by the independent experts at the internationally well-known environmental institute Öko-Trend. more >>
Elektro-Mobilitätsprojekt "colognE-mobil": Staatliche Förderzusage liegt jetzt vor
18.12.2009
Köln wird Modellregion für ein bundesweites Projekt zur Erprobung von Batterie-elektrischen Fahrzeugen und ihrer Infrastruktur. Die Kölner Projektpartner – die Ford-Werke GmbH, die RheinEnergie AG, die Stadt Köln sowie die Universität Duisburg-Essen – haben heute einen entsprechenden „Letter of Intent“ (LoI) erhalten, also die schriftliche Absich more >>
Volvo Cars presented a driveable electric car prototype in September 2009.
17.12.2009
The C30 now being shown in Detroit takes the company one step further in the development process. It features both a complete interior and full instrumentation, as well as enhanced battery packaging. The more >>
AUDI AG: solar power from factory roof
16.12.2009
    * Car manufacturer makes 11,600 square meters (124,861 square feet) of space available for photovoltaic systems at headquarters in        - Practical testing of innovative technologies    * Plant Manager Kössler: “A key part of our environmental strategy” more >>
Prime Minister Gordon Brown welcomes ministerial MINI E
15.12.2009
The Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, welcomed an all-electric, zero emissions MINI E to the Government car pool today in Downing Street.  The MINI E will be tested by ministers wanting to try a fully-fledged electric car in an urban environment on their official business around London.   more >>
Green technologies from the Mercedes-Benz plant in Mannheim protect the environment and safeguard jobs
10.12.2009
    *      50 Mercedes-Benz Atego BlueTec Hybrid trucks in customer use as of 2010    *      Dr. Christian Mohrdieck, Head of Fuel Cell & Battery Drive System Development: “We are developing cutting-edge drive technologies for tomorrow’s transportation needs.”&nb more >>
Oak Forest research lab: Audi sponsors unique science project
03.12.2009
    * Research project by the Technical University of Munich studies conditions for forest growth, climate protection and biodiversity    * International expansion to other Audi sites36,000 oak trees have been planted near Ingolstadt to kick-off a unique research initiative: Together with the Bavarian State Forestry and the Chair more >>
Schnelle bipolare CMOS Hall Sensoren mit Energiesparoption
23.11.2009
Die neuen N- und S-Pol empfindlichen Hall Sensor ICs der Serien S-5721A/22A/23A sind in CMOS oder N-ch-open-drain Ausgang ausgelegt. Sie ermöglichen trotz geringen Stromverbrauchs die schnelle und sichere Detektion eines Magnetfeldes. Die Detektionslogik die bei S-Pol Annäherung einen Übergang "H" nach "L" bewirkt, (N-Pol veranlasst "L" nach "H") ist bei allen gleich. more >>
With the "Seat al Sol" project
11.11.2009
SEAT’s Martorell factory becomes a benchmark for renewable energy production • A joint project with GA – Solar• The installed capacity will exceed 10 MW• The system will avoid the emission of over 6,200 tonnes of CO2 annuallyEarly next year the ‘SEAT al Sol’ project will see the light, generating clean e more >>
BMW Group tops CO2 cutting chart
07.11.2009
For the second year in a row the BMW Group has cut its average CO2 emissions per car by more than any other automotive manufacturer. According to an independent report published by the European Federation for Transport and Environment, the average reduction across the industry was 3.3 per cent, while BMW Group achieved 10.2 per cent.BMW Group’s success in reducing CO2 is thank more >>
PSA Peugeot Citroën in the fight against climate change
26.10.2009
In keeping with its continuing efforts to combat climate change, PSA Peugeot Citroën is a partner of the 6th Forum International de la Météo*, whose theme this year is "The City and Climate Change".         Last September, the Group signed on to two major international initiatives:1. "Caring for Climate", more >>
Audi uses more waste heat, produces less CO2
30.09.2009
 * Contract between carmaker, Stadtwerke Ingolstadt and Petroplus enables annual potential savings of around 26,000 metric tons of CO2 at AudiThe new waste heating contract has been signed, sealed and delivered. Member of the Audi more >>
Kyokuto Kaihatsu Kogyo "Electric Garbage Collection Truck" to be Installed with Mitsubishi EV i-MIEV
28.09.2009
Kyokuto Kaihatsu Kogyo Co., Ltd.'s "Electric Garbage Collection Truck" to be Installed with Mitsubishi Motors Corporation's Electric Vehicle Battery System- Trash Compactor to be Driven by more >>
Efficiency Challenge A to B: Audi demonstrates outstanding efficiency
25.09.2009
    * New Audi A3 1.6 TDI with consumption figures around three litres    * Impressive results from high-performance models, too    * Long-distance tour through Europe with 20 models from the Audi range more >>
Only 99 grams CO2 per kilometer: Two new models in Audiís A3 series
22.09.2009
    * Audi A3 1.6 TDI with 99 grams CO2/km    * Innovations from the Modular Efficiency Platform    * 77 kW (105 hp) and 250 Nm of torque for powerful propulsionAudi has once again raised the efficiency bar: the new A3 1.6 TDI emits just 99 grams of CO2 per kilometer (159.33 g/mile) — thus undercutting t more >>
StatoilHydro Inaugurates World's First Full-Scale Floating Wind Turbine in the North Sea
10.09.2009
The world's first full-scale floating wind turbine, StatoilHydro's Hywind pilot, is being officially inaugurated in the North Sea. StatoilHydro is investing about NOK 340 million (approx. US$ 57m) in the project, with E more >>
Platts gibt die "Top 250" der weltweiten Energieunternehmen 2009 bekannt
11.08.2009
- Das Ranking wird im Rahmen der Top 250 Global Energy Companies Awards und Leadership Dinner anlässlich der Singapore International Energy Week bekannt gegebenPlatts, der weltweit führende Anbieter von Energieinformationen und eine Geschäftseinheit von The McGraw-Hill Companies (NYSE: MHP), wird am 16. November 2009 bei einem Ehren-Dinner in Si more >>
"Mitsubishi Motors Group Environmental Vision 2020" Roadmap Announced
08.06.2009
-"Leading the EV era, towards a sustainable future" -Looking ahead to year 2020, the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the company, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) today announced the "Mitsubishi Motors Group Environmental Vision 2020" roadmap for its near-future environmental policy that maximizes the benefits offered by the EV*1 to Leading the EV era, t more >>
Energy-efficient engine technology wins Ford Team National Inventor of the Year Award
29.05.2009
    * The Intellectual Property Owners Education Foundation is honoring the inventors of the Ford-patented Plasma Transferred Wire Arc (PTWA) technology used to apply coatings on engine cylinder bores with the 2009 National Inventor of the Year Award    * Ford’s PTWA thermal spray coating process for aluminum engine blocks replaces heavy cast iron more >>
New Ford Focus show biggest CO2 improvement...
08.05.2009
... says Green Car websiteFord's latest low carbon cars are leading the industry at reducing CO2 levels according to environmental website Clean Green Cars.Clean Green Cars analysed latest CO2 data for this year's new car sales in the UK and found that Ford was best at reducing CO2 output – which is directly linked to improved fuel consumption.The more >>
2001-2021 copyright automobilsport.com